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黄昌圭 移动芯片老兵的新挑战【亚博App】


本文摘要:Hwang Chang-gyu jokes that the iPhone might not be here today had it not been for his vision for mobile chips.黄昌圭(Hwang Chang Gyu)打趣说道,若不是他明确提出移动芯片愿景,有可能就会有今天的iPhone。

Hwang Chang-gyu jokes that the iPhone might not be here today had it not been for his vision for mobile chips.黄昌圭(Hwang Chang Gyu)打趣说道,若不是他明确提出移动芯片愿景,有可能就会有今天的iPhone。In 2004, when he was head of Samsung Electronics’ semiconductor business, Mr Hwang was invited by the late Steve Jobs to Apple’s headquarters in Cupertino. The Apple founder was mulling how to make the iPod slimmer and its battery last longer.2004年,在兼任三星电子(Samsung Electronics)半导体业务负责人时,黄昌圭被胞弟的史蒂夫乔布斯(Steve Jobs)请求到苹果(Apple)坐落于库比蒂诺的总部。苹果公司创始人在木村着如何让iPod的机身更加纤薄,电池续航能力更长。“At that time, the iPod was quite bulky with its battery lasting only two hours. Mr Jobs wanted to make a fancier design. And he was already thinking about making the iPhone,” recalls the 62-year-old.现年62岁的黄昌圭回想道:“当时,iPod机身非常轻巧,电池不能用两个小时。

乔布斯期望作出更加可爱的设计。他当时已在考虑到生产iPhone了。”Mr Hwang was a prominent figure in the global semiconductor industry, partly because of a theory published in 2002 — locally dubbed Hwang’s Law — that memory chip density would double each year, a more rapid evolution than that previously observed by Gordon Moore, Intel’s co-founder.黄昌圭是全球半导体产业的一位著名人物,这在一定程度上源自2002年公开发表的一项理论,该理论在韩国被称作黄氏法则(Hwang’s Law),即内存芯片密度将每年缩减到,这一发展速度快于当年英特尔(Intel)牵头创始人戈登摩尔(Gordon Moore)明确提出的“摩尔定律”。


The South Korean showed Jobs Samsung’s newly-developed flash memory chips, which store data and whose development he had spearheaded. “He said ‘this is exactly what I wanted’.” Then Jobs laid out his vision of Apple’s future to Mr Hwang for nearly an hour, writing details on a whiteboard.黄昌圭向乔布斯展出了三星新的研发的存储器芯片,这种用来存储数据的芯片是由他带队研发的。“他说道‘这正是我想的’。

”接着,乔布斯用了近一个小时向黄昌圭描写了他对苹果未来的愿景,并把具体内容写出在一块白板上。When the iPhone was launched in 2007, Samsung ended up as its main supplier of key parts, including flash memory chips, application processors and display panels.当苹果于2007年发售iPhone时,三星沦为该手机关键零配件的主要供应商,还包括存储器芯片、应用于处理器和显示屏。

The partnership has helped to cement Mr Hwang’s status as one of the rare stars among South Korean business leaders — and propel him into the CEO’s chair at KT Corp, the country’s biggest telecoms company by sales.这种合作协助稳固了黄昌圭作为韩国商界领袖中为数不多的明星级人物的地位,并把他推向了韩国仅次于电信运营商(以销售额计)韩国电信(KT Corp)首席执行官的职位。Clad in navy suit, white shirt, blue tie and silver-rimmed glasses, he cuts a neat figure at the company’s futuristic new HQ in downtown Seoul, designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano.在釜山市中心由意大利建筑师伦佐皮亚诺(Renzo Piano)设计的未来主义风格的韩国电信新的总部大楼,身着深蓝色西装、白色衬衣,系由着蓝色领带、带着银边眼镜的黄昌圭展现一副干净利落的形象。

He took over at KT a year ago, after a brief stint as the country’s chief technology officer, attempting to develop new growth engines for Asia’s fourth-largest economy. In that role, Mr Hwang tried to make South Korea less of a “fast follower” and more of an innovator, complete with a more tolerant approach to risk-taking and productive failure.他是在一年前接任韩国电信的。之前他曾兼任韩国的首席技术官,力图为亚洲第四大经济体研发新的快速增长引擎。在那个职位上,黄昌圭力图让韩国在更大程度上做到一个创新者,而仍然是“较慢跟随者”,还包括对冒险和“有益的挫折”采行更为尊重的姿态。The challenges of his current post have been even more pressing. He admits that he could not sleep well when he joined KT, overwhelmed by the daunting task of turning round the group.目前职位所面对的挑战甚至更加严峻。

他否认,刚刚加盟韩国电信时,挽回该集团局面的艰难任务让他无法安睡。Soon after his arrival, he had to make a public apology for a personal data leak affecting KT customers, as well as a financial scam that predated him involving one of its subsidiaries. The former state-run company, which has a market capitalisation of Won8.3tn (5.1bn), suffered a Won966bn net loss last year on sales of Won23.42tn.在他离任后旋即,他被迫为一起影响韩国电信客户的个人数据泄漏事件以及一桩财务欺诈案(再次发生在他供职之前,牵涉到该集团一家子公司)公开发表道歉。去年,这家市值为8.3万亿韩元(合51亿英镑)的前国营企业遭遇9660亿韩元净亏损,销售额为23.42万亿韩元。


Mr Hwang has embarked on a massive restructuring to reduce the size of KT, slashing about 8,300 jobs or a quarter of its workforce and letting go of a third of its executives. He is selling non-core assets such as the car rental and financing units to strengthen the company’s balance sheet, after it diversified in search of new growth under his predecessor, Lee Suk-chae, who has gone on trial for alleged embezzlement and breach of fiduciary duty.黄昌圭已启动大规模重组计划,以削减韩国电信的规模,裁员大约8300人,占到员工总数的四分之一,还缩编了三分之一的高管。他于是以出售非核心资产(例如汽车出租和融资部门),以强化公司的资产负债表。此前在他的前任李锡采行(Lee Suk-chae)领导下,韩国电信曾踏上业务多元化的道路,以找寻新的增长点;李锡采行因涉嫌挪用公款和违背不受信责任于是以拒绝接受审判。

There have been early signs of recovery. KT last week posted a Won281bn net profit for the first quarter of 2015, while the number of wireless subscribers was up 6.2 per cent year-on-year to 17.5m in the same period, with average revenue per user up 4.5 per cent.早期衰退迹象正在显出。韩国电信最近报告,2015年第一季度构建净利润2810亿韩元,同期无线收费用户数量同比增加6.2%,至1750万人,每用户平均收入快速增长4.5%。

Finding new revenue streams is now the company’s biggest challenge as South Korea’s mobile market nears saturation, with fierce competition among the country’s three telecoms groups depressing their margins.寻找新的收益来源是韩国电信目前面对的仅次于挑战。随着韩国移动市场相似饱和状态,该国三家电信集团之间的白热化竞争于是以断裂利润率。

Mr Hwang is pinning his hopes on futuristic services in five areas — energy, healthcare, security, transportation and next-generation media — convinced that KT can become a leader in the “internet of things”, in which ever more objects are connected electronically.黄昌圭于是以期盼于在5个领域(能源、医疗、安全性、交通和下一代媒体)获取面向未来的服务。他坚信,韩国电信需要沦为“物联网”(以电子方式相连更加多的物件)领军企业。


South Korea is already the world’s most wired nation with the fastest internet network. KT, which is leading the country’s drive for fifth-generation, or 5G, mobile connectivity, is investing Won4.5tn during Mr Hwang’s three-year term to build superfast internet networks that will be more than 10 times faster than current ones.韩国已是全球相连程度最低的国家,享有速度最慢的互联网基础设施。韩国电信于是以领导该国第五代移动通信(5G)技术项目。在黄昌圭的三年任期内,该公司将投资4.5万亿韩元,建设超高速互联网基础设施,其速度将比现有网络慢10倍以上。

“Telecoms itself could be a mature business but the industry’s paradigm will completely change when telecoms networks and platforms converge with other industries,” he says. “The industry could see explosive growth in data traffic once the 5G technology enables various connected services.”“电信业本身有可能已成熟期,但是当电信网络及平台与其他行业融合之后,该行业的范式将再次发生完全变化,”他回应。“一旦5G技术使各种网络服务沦为有可能,业界有可能看见数据流量经常出现爆炸性快速增长。”Mr Hwang was born in Busan, the country’s southernmost port city, where his youth included a stint in the high school choir. His grandfather was a famous palace painter towards the end of the Chosun dynasty.黄昌圭出生于韩国最南部港口城市釜山,年轻时曾参与中学合唱团。

他的祖父是朝鲜王朝末期的一位知名宫廷画师。After graduating from Seoul National University and studying for a doctorate in the US, he worked as an adviser for technology companies, including Intel. With his children growing up, he mulled a return to his homeland.从釜山大学(Seoul National University)毕业后,他赶赴美国修读博士学位,之后曾兼任英特尔等科技公司的顾问。

随着子女长大,他开始考虑到回国。An ambition to overtake Japanese chipmakers — which he had viewed up close on a business trip while working as a researcher at Stanford University — led him to join Samsung in 1989.在斯坦福大学(Stanford University)兼任研究员期间的一次公干中,他曾近距离检视日本芯片制造商。

打破日本企业的雄心促成他在1989年加盟三星。“At that time, Japanese companies were very much advanced in semiconductor technology and manufacturing, although they were a little behind Intel in terms of design capability,” recalls Mr Hwang. “The trip helped me set a goal [of beating Japan] and join Samsung.”“当时,日本企业在半导体技术和生产方面十分先进设备,尽管他们在设计能力方面稍微迟缓于英特尔,”黄昌圭回想道,“那次公干协助我确认了加盟三星(打败日本的)目标。


”In fact, he faced tougher challenges after Samsung overtook Japanese rivals in the D-Ram chip business. “Once our technology surpassed that of Japanese companies, it felt daunting,” he says. “But I was convinced somehow that we were moving past the PC era into a mobile one, where demand for graphics or video clips would sharply increase. So I focused on developing flash memory chips, betting that they would spark the mobile big bang.”实质上,在三星在动态Ram芯片业务方面打破日本竞争对手后,他面对着更加不利的挑战。“一旦我们的技术多达日本企业,我们感觉未来的任务十分艰巨,”他回应,“但我在内心深处相信,我们于是以从个人电脑时代转入移动时代,人们对图形或视频短片的市场需求将大大增加。

因此我探讨于研发存储器芯片,坚信它们将引起移动设备的大爆炸。”His predictions turned out to be true. However, not all of KT’s unionised workers feel he has so far lived up to his fame. Some industry watchers also suggest key projects, such as the “Gigatopia” bid to make the internet 10 times faster, are against the current global IT trend focusing on mobile phones.事实证明,他的预测是对的。

不过,在重新加入工会的韩国电信员工中,并非所有人都指出他目前为止不忘盛誉。一些行业仔细观察人士也回应,一些关键项目,例如目的让互联网速度提升10倍的GiGAtopia项目,与当前全球IT行业注目移动手机的趋势相符。Mr Hwang was paid about Won600m (367,000) last year including bonuses, significantly less than local telecoms rivals and his predecessor at KT. He acknowledges the difficulties of running a provider of services such as KT rather than a manufacturer such as Samsung.去年,黄昌圭总计取得6亿韩元(合36.7万英镑)左右的薪酬(还包括奖金在内),相比之下高于本国电信业竞争对手和他在韩国电信的前任。

他否认,与管理三星等制造商比起,管理韩国电信这种服务提供商不存在可玩性。South Korea’s service sector remains under-developed, with low productivity and little presence overseas. “In manufacturing, if you come up with a quality product, that’s it. But offering a service requires a more emotional approach, with broader perspectives and details to impress customers. ”韩国服务业仍不繁盛,生产率较低,在海外完全没足迹。“在制造业,只要生产出有高质量的产品就行了。但获取服务必须采行一种更加感性的方法,必须更加辽阔的视角,必须用细节来感动客户。

”For KT, privatised in 2002, developing a longer-term growth strategy is further complicated by regulation and political interference. Mr Hwang stays silent about such sensitive issues, admitting they are beyond his control because KT cannot ignore its public role, but he remains optimistic about the company’s future, with a vision based on “advanced technologies and efficient management”.对于在2002年被私有化的韩国电信,监管和政治介入激化了制订较长年快速增长战略的复杂性。黄昌圭在这些脆弱问题上保持沉默,否认这些问题不出他的掌控范围之内,因为韩国电信无法忽略其公共角色,但他仍对公司的未来回应悲观,他的愿景基于“先进设备技术和高效管理”。But Hwang Young-key, his close friend and former president of Samsung Securities, says his KT role is very different to running the semiconductor business at Samsung, where thorny issues could be handled by the group’s central functions. “At KT, he has to meet various people from government officials to labour union members and has to solve many difficult issues alone. It must be quite challenging for him.”但他的亲近朋友、三星证券(Samsung Securities)前总裁黄永基(Hwang Young-key)回应,他在韩国电信的任务与管理三星半导体业务截然不同;在三星,棘手的事务可以由集团总部的职能部门处置。